The term cancer in the majority of the population is commonly associated with the whole spectrum of malignant tumours that cause various oenological diseases. In the human body, it can develop from the epithelial cells of many organs and tissues. In fact, cancer is a generalized term for a large group of oenological diseases in tissues and organs. Despite the significant progress of medicine, oenological diseases confidently take second place in the world after cardiovascular diseases. They tend to increase and are one of the causes of high mortality. A similar situation is in Ukraine, where there are more than a million cancer patients, and the annual increase is about 130-150 thousand people. According to WHO forecasts, by 2032 the number of new cases of cancer in the world will increase by almost 70%. This makes this medical and social problem extremely urgent.
The basis of the mechanism of carcinogenesis is the
violation of control over the multi-stage process of cell division, growth and
specialization (mutations of the cell genome). This leads to their
uncontrolled division, growth, change in morphology and function, and
ultimately to degeneration (malignancy) with the acquisition of
uncharacteristic properties. The “malignancy” of the process is due to:
Uncontrolled growth, as well as cell multiplication –
The ability to germinate (infiltrate) in nearby tissues/organs. The possibility of migration of tumour cells into neighbouring and distant organs through the blood / lymphatic system with the formation of metastases. Mostly, cancer is a cancerous tumour, however, oenological processes can occur in the body’s fluid (blood and lymph). Mutation of the cell genome, according to modern medicine, can occur under the influence of a number of factors, the main of which include:
Heredity (genetic predisposition) – statistically
significantly increases the risk of developing certain types of cancer.
Exposure to a wide range of physical and chemical
carcinogenic factors. Among them is ultraviolet (solar) radiation,
radiation, electromagnetic effects, tobacco smoke, aromatic hydrocarbons,
aldehydes and polyphenols, metals (chromium, zinc, and asbestos, lead,
The presence in the diet of “harmful” products, which
contain different types of dyes, GMOs, synthetic preservatives, stabilizers.
The abuse of alcoholic beverages.
Biological agents (oncoviruses). Among them, the papillomavirus, herpes, adenoviruses, hepatitis B and C.
Imbalance of metabolism and hormonal imbalance.
Frequent psychological trauma (stress, depression).
Ontogenetic (age-related) mutations occur almost constantly
in the body, but they are under the control of defence systems until the entire
“ecosystem” of the body is disrupted. Then favourable conditions arise in
order for a disease such as cancer to begin to develop.
Speaking of cancer, most use the term in the
singular. In fact, it means completely different diseases that occur with
their own symptoms and require individual approaches to treatment.
Symptoms of oncology depend on many factors:
Type of cancer;
The stage at which the disease is located;
The speed with which education develops;
The presence or absence of metastases.
The first signs of cancer are non-specific and are
manifested by general weakness, a sharp decrease in body weight, low-grade
fever, and lack of appetite.
Specific signs depend primarily on the organ affected by the tumour:
With lung carcinoma, the first manifestation of cancer is a
cough, a hoarse voice, chest pain, shortness of breath.
Symptoms of a malignant tumour that has arisen in the
mammary gland are painless compaction, an increase in regional lymph nodes, and
fluid from the nipples.
Some types of disease, for example, prostate cancer, are
almost asymptomatic in the initial stages. As the tumour grows, pain
occurs, traces of blood in the urine, problems with urination.
Tumours of the gastrointestinal tract have an extremely wide range of symptoms, it all depends on the affected organ. Discomfort, bloating and abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, stool disorders, increased fatigue and weakness can be common.