The disease occurs in men over 50 years of age. Accompanied by pain, bloating, indigestion, belching, hiccups and gas. Tumour growth can lead to ascites – fluid buildup in the peritoneum. Therefore, an increase in the abdomen occurs. Surgical excision is used to treat such a tumour. In the case of inoperable mesothelioma, complex treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy is applied.
In this form, the tumour is extremely rare. It feels impressive, reaching an impressive size. This is accompanied by symptoms such as: chest pain, malfunction of the cardiovascular system (hypotension, heart failure, arrhythmia, tachycardia, angina), sweating, swelling of the limbs, suffocation, loss of consciousness. Such a tumour can lead to a heart attack.
Such a tumour is benign. It is formed from the serous membrane of the testis. It is characterized by enlargement of the affected organ, pain in the groin and lower back. With early detection of the disease at an early stage, the prognosis will be favorable.
Diagnosis of mesothelioma
After visual inspection and palpation, the patient is sent to the following procedures to accurately diagnose the disease:
- Chest Radiography. Such Examination Allows Identification Of Lesions Of The Pleura, Pericardium, Lungs And Detection Of Fluid Accumulation. Also, X-Rays Provide An Opportunity To Clarify Where The Tumour Focus Is And What Size It Has;
- CT And MRI Scans Help Detect Secondary Metastases In Other Organs;
- Ultrasound Examination Of The Peritoneum And Pleura;
- Thoracoscopy – The Examination Is Performed Using A Special Optical Device;
- Puncture – Is The Intake Of Fluid From The Pleural Cavity. This Allows For A Biopsy, Which Involves Cytostatic Analysis And Clarification Of The Stage Of The Disease.
In modern medicine, there are several methods for treating mesothelioma tumours:
- Surgical Excision;
- Neoadjuvant And Adjuvant Chemotherapy;
- Radiation Therapy (Brachytherapy And Interoperative);
- Gene Therapy;
In surgical treatment, excision of the tumour is not always possible due to its inaccessibility. However, if it is possible to remove all neoplasm, then healthy tissue sections are removed to reduce the risk of relapse.
Removal of pleural Pleurectomy is performed at an early stage of pleural mesothelioma. At a later stage, in addition to the pleura, it is possible to remove the lung, part of the diaphragm and the pericardium.
Chemotherapy is considered to be the most common treatment for mesothelioma. The tumour is affected by powerful medicines that are injected intravenously or into the pleura itself. Effective drugs are cisplatin and pemetrexed. Chemotherapy can be used as an additional treatment after surgical removal.
The above treatments for mesothelioma cannot act as independent. The doctor chooses individual overall treatment depending on the patient’s condition and stage of the disease.
The prognosis of the disease. Stage 4 – How Many Live?
The prognosis for mesothelioma tumours depends on many factors. This stage of the disease and the location of the tumours, as well as the ability to remove the tumour in an operational manner. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. In the absence of treatment, the life expectancy of stage 4 does not exceed 6 months. Maintenance therapy can extend it by no more than 2 years.
Prevention of mesothelioma
In order to prevent this terrible disease, every person should know that contact with asbestos and other harmful minerals provokes cancer. Those whose occupational activities are asbestos-extracted, work in factories, and people living in industrial areas should undergo regular medical check-ups and be tested to avoid mesothelioma.