20 March 2019

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Patients with Cervical Cancer

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Patients with Cervical Cancer - Cervical cancer is a malignant tumor that is often found in women, and is the only cancer that has a known cause. Cervical cancer can be caused by the HPV virus, and the HPV virus can be transmitted through physical contact, in more than 10 years incubation period, but cervical cancer can be prevented and can be measured, by understanding the symptoms of cervical cancer, and properly screening and knowing early, with quickly treated.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

1. Associated with cervical erosion

Usually people with cervical cancer are mostly associated with cervical erosion, it can be through pap smear or other tests to diagnose this disease.

2. Contact bleeding 

Contact bleeding is the most typical symptom of cervical cancer, around 70% -80% of patients experience bleeding also in the vaginal part. When after having sexual intercourse or doing a gynecological examination, or straining during bowel movements, from the vagina can come out a mixture of blood mixed with fluid

3. Irregular bleeding in the vagina

For women who have experienced menopause for a long time, and suddenly without any reason experience "cramps". The amount of bleeding is not much, not accompanied by abdominal pain, lumbago and other symptoms, very easily ignored. This is an early symptom of cervical cancer, patients in old age can do a gynecological examination, or through a colposcopy examination to ascertain the disease.

4. Pain

The patient's lower abdomen or waist is often hit by pain, sometimes the pain also attacks the upper abdomen, upper and pelvic legs, during menstruation, defecation, or sexual intercourse, the pain will worsen, especially when inflammation retreats along the uterosacral ligament extending or spreading along the bottom of the ligament, forming chronic inflammation of the parametric connective tissue, when thickening of the main ligament of the cervix, the pain will worsen. Each time touching the cervix, directly causing the iliac fossa, lumbosacral pain, there are some patients who even experience symptoms of nausea, and other symptoms.

5. Vaginal fluid increases

Clinically, about 75% -85% of patients have different stages of secretion, mainly due to tumor stimulation, the function of the secretion of cervical gland hyperthyroidism, producing mucus like vaginal discharge. Abnormal leucorrhoea, including excessive fluids and smells and changing colors, is an early symptom of cervical cancer, can do a pap smear examination or iodine test, and other types of examination.

Common method of diagnosis of cervical cancer

1. Blade cervix cytologic examination (Cervical Pap)

Is the main method for detecting lesions of cervical cancer precursors and early stage cervical cancer. But be careful with the position of the material taken and careful microscopic examination, the false negative level can be 5% -10%, therefore, it must be combined with clinical conditions and carry out periodic examinations, as a method for screening.

2. Iodine

The cervical or vaginal squamous epithelium is normally rich in glycogen, which can be brown after being given iodine fluid, while the columnar epithelial cervix, cervical erosion, and abnormal squamous epithelium (including squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma area) are not glycogen , it is colorless. In the clinical cervix exposed to the vaginal speculum, after wiping the mucus surface, applying iodine solution, to the cervix and fornix, if an abnormal iodine-negative area is found, it can do a biopsy and pathological examination for this area.

3. Biopsy of the cervix and cervical canal

Pap smears in the cervix are more than Class Ⅲ ~ Ⅳ, but if the biopsy of the cervix is ​​negative, at the squamous column junction, the cervix at points 6, 9, 12 and 3: takes four points of biopsy or in the area of ​​colorless iodine tests and suspected cancer sites , take some tissue and excisional biopsy or apply a small curette to scrape the endocervix sent for pathological examination.

4. Colposcopy

Colposcopy cannot directly diagnose carcinoid tumors, but can help choose the location of the biopsy to perform a cervical biopsy. According to statistics, biopsy with the help of colposcopy, the diagnostic accuracy for early cervical cancer can be achieved at around 98%. However, colposcopy is not a substitute for Pap smears and biopsies, nor can it find lesions in the cervical canal. Cancer experts at the Guangzhou Modern Cancer Hospital warn: a diagnosis of cervical cancer can help people to detect cervical cancer in a timely manner, to avoid delays in cancer treatment cervix. 

Treatment of cervical cancer

There are many factors that must be considered before deciding how to treat cervical cancer, including tumor size, age of cervical cancer patients and overall health conditions, as well as stadium and other levels. The level of malignancy of cervical cancer is high, 70% of cervical cancer patients when diagnosed are already at an advanced stage. Cervical cancer treatment includes surgical removal, western-eastern medical collaboration treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and others.

Currently, the most common way to treat cervical cancer is surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery is suitable for early-stage cervical cancer, the preferred operation is radical hysterectomy (surgical removal of the entire uterus), which is to remove the uterus from the vagina and parametric tissue, while simultaneously cleaning bilateral lymph nodes in the pelvis, if there is no pathological changes can be considered not to be appointed. The advantage of treatment with surgery in the case of an early stage is that it is enough to have one surgery to clear cancer lesions, a short treatment period. The disadvantage is the wide scope of appointment, after surgery there may be a disruption in the function of urination in a certain level and other complications, it takes a break and exercise some time just to recover.

Radiotherapy is suitable for cervical cancer in all stages, even advanced cervical cancer. For older people, lack of heart function who cannot undergo surgery, radiotherapy is a very good way to treat cervical cancer. However, radiotherapy has certain complications, the most important of which is radioactive rectum and bladder infection, requiring active treatment and new breaks to recover slowly.

Radioparticle treatment is also one of the effective treatment methods for cervical cancer. Cancer of the cervix is ​​sensitive to radioactive light, early stage or advanced cervical cancer all have fairly good treatment results. Radioparticle treatment is carried out by implanting the radioparticles into the tumor under CT or ultrasound guidance, these particles in the tumor will continue to emit radioactive rays, treat tumors and cut off the pathway to spread the tumor.

From here it can be seen that there are many kinds of ways to treat cervical cancer, cervical cancer patients are expected not to give up first, provided they can work with doctors, choose the right cervical cancer treatment methods for themselves, thus effectively controlling cervical cancer.

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